When the Antarctic Treaty was signed in Washington in 1959, Antarctica became devoted solely to â¦ His body was never found. The Antarctic Treaty was drawn up in 1959 and it came into force in 1961. In 1959, 12 countries signed the Antarctic Treaty, which dedicated the whole continent to peaceful collaboration for scientific investigation. Written by Bhagwati Prasad Semwal VU3BPZ-8T2BH. Three men died during the expedition. During his expedition, he sights new areas of the continent including Enderby Land and Graham Land. The History of Antarctica starts off with the European discoverers. : Aristotle theorizes that there must be a land mass in the south to balance the known lands in the northern hemisphere. Amundsen.’. Mawson, along with six others, remained in the Antarctic for another 12 months before help returned. They reached it on 14 December 1911. 20 February 1935 Danish Norwegian explorer Caroline Mikkelsen becomes the first woman to set foot on Antarctica. Long before human eyes ever beheld Antarctica, the ancients were convinced it existed â or at least something like it. Antarctica is the Earth's southernmost continent, roughly centered around the South Pole. Amundsen had originally planned to make a bid for the North Pole, but changed his objective after two American explorers each claimed to have reached the goal. knowledge of the glacial and climate history of Antarctica. They proved that it was possible to survive even the extremely harsh Antarctic winter. Captain Cook’s expedition 50 years previously never sighted land. Omond House was built in 1904 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition as the first permanent base in Antarctica. With this he became the first head of government and state to visit Antarctica. On 17 January 1773 Cook became the first person to cross the Antarctic circle. 98% of Antarctica is covered by a gigantic ice sheet, averaging 1.6 kilometers (1.0 mi) thick, which contains about 60% of the world's fresh water.The continent has the most extreme climate of any continent, experiencing the world's lowest temperatures and least rain. Individual pages signify the copyright for the content on that page. A Brief History of Antarctica â Magellanica. A Brief History of the ... February the 7th. The history of Antarctica emerges from early Western theories of a vast continent, known as Terra Australis, believed to exist in the far south of the globe. The first man to reach the South Pole was a Norwegian named Roald Amundsen (1872-1928). In 1772-75 Captain Cook was sent on an expedition to the Southern Hemisphere. Also in 1901-1903, a Swedish expedition was led by Nils Nordenskjold. 15 October 1911 Amundsen sets out to reach the South Pole with five men, four sledges and 52 dogs, travelling to pre-prepared depots and killing dogs for food as they go. The aim of these expeditions was often more competitive than scientific. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. level 2. Meanwhile, in 1901-02 a British expedition to Antarctica was led by Robert Falcon Scott. Aristotle argued that since the world is round there must be a landmass in the southern hemisphere to balance the land in the northern hemisphere. 2 March 1958 The Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition led by Vivian Fuchs becomes the first to successfully cross the continent, travelling 2,158 miles in 99 days. He only revealed his South Pole ambitions to his crew after he had set sail. In 1961, the treaty went into effect, and all territorial claims any country had made before that time were suspended. Further exploration of Antarctica was carried out by an American named Charles Wilkes in 1838-39, the Frenchman Dumont d'Urville in 1837-40 and the Scot James Ross in 1839-41. Close. Furthermore in 1823 a Scot named James Weddell explored the Weddell Sea. Almost all of Antarctica is covered with ice; less than half a percent of the vast wilderness is ice-free. 1901-1904 Captain Robert Falcon Scott leads his first expedition to the Antarctic in the specially built ship Discovery. Well, it is something to have got here, and the wind may be our friend tomorrow. Originally published by Royal Museums Greenwhich under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported license. 19 January 1915 Endurance becomes stuck in the pack ice of the Weddell Sea. In the winter of 1821, for the first time ever a party of men spent a winter in Antarctica. This is in effect until 2048, at which point it can be revisited. Decades passed and the world showed little interest in Antarctica. However the Greeks and later peoples had no way of proving it. Discover more about the race to reach the South Pole. 6 years ago. In 1935 Caroline Mikkelsen became the first woman to land on Antarctica. 24 April 1916 Six men including Shackleton leave on the James Caird in search of rescue, planning to sail 800 miles to the whaling stations of South Georgia. Finally, in 1908 Ernest Shackleton led another British expedition to Antarctica. However, setbacks and equipment failure meant that Scott would have to man-haul far further and on fewer provisions than he had originally planned. It replaced Wilkies station, and later, the Casey tunnel. During the expedition, Ross discovers the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf: this region would later serve as the starting point for both Amundsen and Scott’s expeditions to the South Pole in 1911. The first man to fly a plane in Antarctica was an Australian called George Wilkins in November 1928. According to Scott, Oates walked out of his tent with the words, ‘I am just going outside and may be some time’. 1992-1993 Ranulph Fiennes and Dr Mike Stroud become the first people to cross the Antarctic continent unsupported, without assistance or extra supplies. redditormade. I wonder if we can do it.’ The party leave the next day. âHeroic Age of Antarctic Explorationâ (1897-1922). The party treks without sleep across the unmapped island, finally reaching the Norwegian whaling station at Stromness on 20 May. The closest solid land, the uninhabited Elephant Island, is over 100 miles away, but all three boats reach their destination on 17 April. In the process he leads just the third group to reach the South Pole, and the first to do so in vehicles. 1839-41 James Clark Ross commands Erebus and Terror (the ships later to be lost during Franklin’s search for the North-West Passage) to the Antarctic. A Brief History of Exploration of Antarctica. East Antarctica makes up two-thirâ¦ Shackleton and the rescue party finally reach South Georgia 17 days later, but are forced to land on the uninhabited side of the island. Scott and his crew leave Cardiff on the Terra Nova on 15 June; Amundsen departs Kristiansand on 9 August on the Fram. Shackleton hopes to spend the winter on board and wait for the ice to free them, but over the course of the next nine months the ship is gradually crushed. If all countries that are party to this agreement, of which there are 29, agreed otherwise, there could be â¦ It is also the worldâs highest, driest, windiest, coldest, and iciest continent. The expedition failed to make it back to base and Scott made his last entry in his diary on 29 March 1912. See the bottom of each page for copyright information. The Casey station we use today opened in 1988. It seeks to conserve Antarctica and it is regularly revised. A Brief History of Antarctica Posted by admin December 24, 2009 On Dec. 1, 1959, representatives from a dozen countries, including the U.S., Japan and the U.K. met in Washington to sign a treaty intended to keep the Cold War out of the coldest place on Earth. In 1899-1900 a Norwegian named Carsten Borchgrevink led a group of men who spent the winter on the continent of Antarctica. 9 April 1916 Unable to remain on the sea ice any longer, the party abandon their ‘Ocean Camp’ in three lifeboats: the James Caird, the Dudley Docker and the Stancomb-Willis. They returned to their base on 25 January 1912. Because early explorers confronted extreme obstacles and debilitating conditions, this period of time became known as the Heroic Age. However, their ship broke free and the men left behind were not rescued until January 1917. 23 June 1961 The Antarctic Treaty comes into force, an international agreement establishing how the continent should be protected and governed. In 1895 another Norwegian, Henrik Bull discovered lichens growing on the Possession Islands, the first time plants had been found growing south of the Antarctic Circle. Oceanus, v31 n2 p28-31 Sum 1988. They were also the first people to take dogs to Antarctica. He was the first man to reach it since Captain Scott in 1912. Scott arrived in Antarctica in January 1911 and he set out for the South Pole in October. These early voyages were operated by the Norwegian shipping company that formed Hurtigruten, sailing a summer route between Trondheim and Hammerfest and a winter route between Trondheim and Tromsø. January 1820: Antarctica is first sighted. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). President of Chile Gabriel Gonzalez Videla during his visit in the 1940s. 14 December 1943 Britain launches the secret wartime mission Operation Tabarin, establishing permanent bases in the Antarctic for the first time. In 1901-03 a German expedition to Antarctica was led by Erich von Drygalski. Then in 1897-98, a Belgian named Adrien de Gerlache led another expedition to the Antarctic. Discover more about James Cook’s voyage to the Antarctic Circle. The whole team arrive safely back at base camp on 26 January, having travelled more than 1,600 miles in 99 days. 1898-99 The Belgian ship Belgica led by Adrien de Gerlache becomes the first vessel to spend a winter in the Antarctic after becoming trapped in ice for a year. January 1773: Captain James Cook becomes the first recorded navigator to cross the Antarctic Circle. 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